Azeotropic distillation is an important and widely used separation technique as a large number of azeotropic mixtures are of great industrial importance. The formation of azeotropes containing ethanol is of commercial importance in the production of anhydrous alcohol. An azeotrope may be considered as a mixture of two or more liquids in the form of loosely held molecular compounds that have a fixed boiling point, which is generally lower than that of any separate liquid.
In azeotropic mixtures, this steady increase in concentration does not take place, owing to the so called azeotropic points. An azeotrope is defined as a constant boiling mixture that often boils at a temperature different from its components. Therefore, azeotrope is a mixture of two liquid compounds whose molecules become loosely bonded such that they have a common boiling point that is different from either constituent’s.
Types of Azeotropes
Azeotropes are of two types namely minimum boiling Azeotropes and maximum boiling Azeotropes described below.
- Minimum boiling Azeotropes – The liquid pairs that show positive deviation from ideal behavior form these azeotropes. These azeotropes have lower boiling points than any of the components.
- Maximum boiling Azeotropes – Such azeotropes are created by liquid pairs showing negative deviations from ideal behaviour. These azeotropes have lower boiling points than either part.
Main Causes of Deforestation
The major cause of deforestation globally is the removal of trees for agricultural expansion purposes. In poor countries subsistence agriculture is responsible for 48% of deforestation, commercial agriculture for 32% while commercial logging is only for 14%. Charcoal and other fuel wood cleaning are accountable for less than 6%.
There are two main causes of deforestation. The primary and most common reasons for deforestation are known as the direct causes. The main causes of deforestation vary from place to place, and a variety of economic, social, and governmental factors interact to cause deforestation.
Deforestation is a great threat to life worldwide. The most important causes of deforestation are due to human activities. We can only hope that the natural forces causing deforestation would not do great damage. However, right decisions and appropriate actions must be taken to address the problems caused by the hands of people.